The weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain in growth-hormone (GH) treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS), but may also give rise to virilizing side effects. To assess the effect of Ox, at a conventional and low dosage, on behavior, aggression, romantic and sexual interest, mood, and gender role in GH-treated girls with TS, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted. 133 patients were treated with GH (1.33 mg/m2/d) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl), Ox 0.03 mg/kg/d, or Ox 0.06 mg/kg/d from the age of eight, and with estrogens from the age of 12. The child behavior checklist (CBCL), Junior Dutch Personality Questionnaire (DPQ-J), State-subscale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Scale, Romantic and Sexual Interest Questionnaire, Mood Questionnaire, and Gender Role Questionnaire were filled out before, during, and after discontinuing Ox/Pl. The changes during Ox/Pl therapy were not significantly different between the dosage groups. In untreated patients, the mean CBCL total (P = 0.002) and internalizing (P = 0.003) T scores, as well as the mean DPQ-J social inadequacy SD score (SDS) (P = 0.004) were higher than in reference girls, but decreased during GH + Ox/Pl therapy (P < 0.001, P = 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Whereas the mean total (P = 0.01) and internalizing (P < 0.001) T score remained relatively high, the mean social inadequacy SDS became comparable with reference values. We conclude that in GH-treated girls with TS, Ox 0.03 mg/kg/d or 0.06 mg/kg/d does not cause evident psychological virilizing side effects. Problem behavior, frequently present in untreated girls with TS, decreases during therapy, but total and internalizing problem behavior remain increased.

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Keywords Aggression, Androgen, Behavior, Estrogen replacement therapy, Gender role, Growth hormone, Mood, Oxandrolone, Sexuality, Turner syndrome
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Journal Hormones and Behavior
Menke, L.A, Sas, T.C.J, Visser, M, Kreukels, B.P.C, Stijnen, Th, Zandwijken, G.R.J, … Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2010). The effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone on psychological and behavioral characteristics in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome. Hormones and Behavior, 57(3), 297–305. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.011