Overlap in the clinical presentation of pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease may be substantial, depending on the mode of presentation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) may present with granulomatous colitis, perianal abscesses, hepatic abscesses or granulomas, failure to thrive, and obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract (including esophageal strictures and dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, and small bowel obstruction). Anemia, thrombocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hypoalbuminemia are nonspecific and may occur in any of the granulomatous inflammatory bowel diseases. In histology, macrophages with cytoplasmic inclusions will be rather specific for CGD. Sarcoidosis may present with abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhea, weight loss, growth failure, delayed puberty, erythema nodosum, arthritis, uveitis, and hepatic granulomata. Only in 55% of the patients will angiotensin-converting enzyme be elevated. The noncaseating epithelioid granulomata will be unspecific. Bronchoalveolar lymphocytosis and abnormalities in pulmonary function are reported in sarcoidosis and in Crohn disease (CD) and CGD. Importantly, patients with CD may present with granulomatous lung disease, fibrosing alveolitis, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Sarcoidosis and concomitant gastrointestinal CD have been reported in patients, as well as coexistence of CD and sarcoidosis in siblings. Common susceptibility loci have been identified in CD and sarcoidosis. CD and CGD share defects in the defense mechanisms against different microbes. In the present review, common features and essential differences are discussed in clinical presentation and diagnostics-including histology-in CGD, sarcoidosis, and CD, together with 2 other granulomatous inflammatory bowel diseases, namely abdominal tuberculosis and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Instructions for specific diagnosis and respective treatments are provided. Copyright

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Keywords CGD, Crohn disease, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, abdominal tuberculosis, granuloma, sarcoidosis
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181dc0d73, hdl.handle.net/1765/27863
Citation
Damen, G.M, van Krieken, J.H.J.M, Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H, van Os, E, Tolboom, J.J, Warris, A, … Escher, J.C. (2010). Overlap, common features, and essential differences in pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 51(6), 690–697. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181dc0d73