Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) has been established as a powerful treatment modality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first or subsequent remission. Although alloSCT effectively prevents relapse, non-relapse mortality (NRM) associated with the procedure may counterbalance that beneficial effect. As a result, alloSCT generally is restricted to patients with a relatively high risk of relapse and a relatively low risk for NRM. Here, we review recent studies that evaluated specific risk factors that, on the one hand, identified categories of AML patients with a higher risk of relapse and, on the other hand, identified patients with an increased risk for NRM. We discuss how these recent developments may affect our decision-making about whether and when to proceed to alloSCT.

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Meijer, E, & Cornelissen, J.J. (2008). Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First or Subsequent Remission: Weighing Prognostic Markers Predicting Relapse and Risk Factors for Non-relapse Mortality. Seminars in Oncology, 35(4), 449–457. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2008.04.015