Methods: The study included 25 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients (15 non-obstructive and 10 obstructive) and 25 controls for assessment of left atrial (LA) volume, mass and function by two-dimensional echocardiography. Measurement included mean LA diameter (LAD), LA mass = {(mean LAD + anterior LA wall + posterior LA wall)3- mean LAD3} × 0.8 + 0.6, LA volume = [(8/3 φ L ̇ A1 ̇ A2), where L is LA length, A1 and A2 are LA area in 4-chambers and 2-chambers, respectively] including maximum (Vmax), minimum (Vmin), and pre-atrial contraction (Vpre-A), total atrial stroke volume (TA-SV), TA emptying fraction (TA-EF), active atrial SV (AA-SV), AA-EF, passive atrial SV (PA-SV), PA-EF, atrial expansion index (AEI), and LA kinetic energy (LA-KE) = 1/2 × AA-SV × P × V2. Results: LAD, LA mass, Vmax, Vmin, and Vpre-Awere significantly higher in HCM than controls. TA-SV and TA-EF were comparable in both HCM subgroups and controls. AA-SV and LA-KE were significantly higher in both HCM subgroups than controls. LA-KE was significantly higher in obstructive HCM than non-obstructive (P < 0.001). PA-EF and AEI were significantly lower in obstructive HCM than controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HCM is associated with increased LA size and augmented LA pump function especially obstructive type. LA conduit and reservoir functions are impaired in obstructive HCM.

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Keywords Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Left atrial function, Left atrial mass, Left atrial volume
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Anwar, A.M., Soliman, O.I.I., Nemes, A., Geleijnse, M.L., & ten Cate, F.J.. (2008). An integrated approach to determine left atrial volume, mass and function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by two-dimensional echocardiography. International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 24(1), 45–52. doi:10.1007/s10554-007-9224-x