Clin Microbiol Infect The Netherlands is known for its low methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence. Yet MRSA with no link to established Dutch risk factors for acquisition, MRSA of unknown origin (MUO), has now emerged and hampers early detection and control by active screening upon hospital admittance. We assessed the magnitude of the problem and determined the differences between MUO and MRSA of known origin (MKO) for CC398 and non-CC398. National MRSA Surveillance data (2008-2009) were analysed for epidemiological determinants and genotypic characteristics (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, spa). A quarter (24%) of the 5545 MRSA isolates registered were MUO, i.e. not from defined risk groups. There are two genotypic MUO groups: CC398 MUO (352; 26%) and non-CC398 MUO (998; 74%). CC398 MUO needs further investigation because it could suggest spread, not by direct contact with livestock (pigs, veal calves), but through the community. Non-CC398 MUO is less likely to be from a nursing home than non-CC398 MKO (relative risk 0.55; 95% CI 0.42-0.72) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity was more frequent in non-CC398 MUO than MKO (relative risk 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.29). Exact transmission routes and risk factors for non-CC398 as CC398 MUO remain undefined. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Additional Metadata
Keywords Community, Epidemiology, Livestock, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, Policy, Prevention and control, Risk, Surveillance, The Netherlands
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03662.x, hdl.handle.net/1765/30580
Citation
Lekkerkerk, W.S.N, van de Sande-Bruinsma, N, van der Sande, M.A.B, Tjon-A-Tsien, A, Groenheide, A, Haenen, A, … Vos, M.C. (2011). Emergence of MRSA of unknown origin in the Netherlands. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03662.x