In this paper we investigate which probe size maximizes the throughput when measuring the radius of nanoparticles in high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). The size and the corresponding current of the electron probe determine the precision of the estimate of a particle's radius. Maximizing throughput means that a maximum number of particles should be imaged within a given time frame, so that a prespecified precision is attained. We show that Bayesian statistical experimental design is a very useful approach to determine the optimal probe size using a certain amount of prior knowledge about the sample. The dependence of the optimal probe size on the detector geometry and the diameter, variability and atomic number of the particles is investigated. An expression for the optimal probe size in the absence of any kind of prior knowledge about the specimen is derived as well.

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Keywords Bayesian experimental design, Electron probe, HAADF STEM, Maximum throughput
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Journal Ultramicroscopy
van den Broek, W.W, van Aert, S, Goos, P.P, & van Dyck, D. (2011). Throughput maximization of particle radius measurements through balancing size versus current of the electron probe. Ultramicroscopy, 111(7), 940–947. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.11.025