Gold dimensions of pharmaceutical drug development indicate that it takes on average 11.9 years, with an investment around US$ 0.8 Billion, to launch one product on the market. Furthermore, approximately 22% of the drug candidates successfully complete clinical testing. These universally acknowledged proportions largely originate from one single, much cited publication; Dimasi et al. [5]. However an additional six articles describing new chemical entities (NCE) development were identified, which contain little, if any, information on vaccines. Published cumulative success rates range from 7% to 78% and investments calculations span US$ 0.8 to 1.7 Billion. Obviously this disserves further clarification?

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Keywords Cost, Drug development, Pharmaceutical industry, Risk, Success rate, Transition rate, Vaccine
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Pronker, E.S., Weenen, T.C., Commandeur, H.R., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., & Claassen, H.J.H.M.. (2011). The gold industry standard for risk and cost of drug and vaccine development revisited. Vaccine, 29(35), 5846–5849. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.051