Background. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is 25% in men and postmenopausal women in the developed world. IDA is commonly caused by chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and a thorough examination of the gastrointestinal tract must be standard practice. Objective. To retrospectively study endoscopic evaluations of patients from general practitioners diagnosed with IDA in a peripheral hospital laboratory in order to determine the cause of IDA and the number of gastrointestinal malignancies. Material and methods. We retrospectively evaluated all patients with IDA diagnosed in a peripheral hospital laboratory by the general practitioner in the region of our hospital from 1 January 2004 until 31 December 2005. We included women older than 50 and men 18 years and older without a history of IDA in the previous 2 years. Results. In 2 years, 287 patients were newly diagnosed with IDA in our hospital laboratory. Only 90 (31%) patients were endoscopically evaluated within 4 months. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed at least one lesion potentially responsible for blood loss in 41 of 90 (46%) patients. The most common lesions identified by gastroduodenal endoscopy were erosive esophagitis, gastritis and duodenitis (14%). Cancer was the most commonly detected lesion in the colon, accounting for 17 of 21 colonic lesions explaining IDA. In total, gastrointestinal malignancy was diagnosed in 2% of screened patients. Factors determining the decision for endoscopic screening were lower hemoglobin level, lower ferritin level and male gender. Conclusion. In our retrospective study of patients with IDA, only 31% received any form of endoscopic evaluation. In general practice, IDA is investigated suboptimally, and interventions other than the issuing of guidelines are needed to change practice.

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Keywords Gastrointestinal malignancy, General practitioner, Iron deficiency anemia
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Droogendijk, J., Beukers, R., Berendes, P.B., Tax, M.G.H.M., Sonneveld, P., & Levin, M.-D.. (2011). Screening for gastrointestinal malignancy in patients with iron deficiency anemia by general practitioners: An observational study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 46(9), 1105–1110. doi:10.3109/00365521.2011.594082