We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the Antilles were amplified and sequenced. We included 145 pol sequences of HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands from an observational cohort. All sequences were phylogenetically analyzed by neighbor-joining. Additionally, HIV-1 mobility among ethnic groups was estimated. A phylogenetic tree of all pol sequences showed two Surinamese and three Antillean clusters of related strains, but no clustering between ethnic groups. Clusters included sequences of individuals living in Suriname and the Antilles as well as those who have migrated to The Netherlands. Similar clustering patterns were observed in env and gag. Analysis of HIV mobility among ethnic groups showed significantly lower migration between groups than expected under the hypothesis of panmixis, apart from higher HIV migration between Antilleans in The Netherlands and all other groups. Our study shows that HIV transmission mainly occurs within the ethnic group. This suggests that cultural factors could have a larger impact on HIV mobility than geographic distance.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2010.0115, hdl.handle.net/1765/33974
Citation
Kramer, M.A., Cornelissen, M., Paraskevis, D., Prins, M., Coutinho, R.A., van Sighem, A.I., … Op de Coul, E.L.M.. (2011). HIV transmission patterns among the Netherlands, Suriname, and the Netherlands Antilles: A molecular epidemiological study. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 27(2), 123–130. doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0115