PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac complications after noncardiac surgery cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review will discuss recent developments in risk stratification, monitoring, and risk reduction strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The addition of biomarkers for ischemia, left ventricular function, and atherosclerosis to classic cardiac risk factors improves the prediction of both short-term and long-term outcome after noncardiac surgery. Intraoperative monitoring, using continuous 12-lead ECG assessment and transesophageal echocardiography, may timely identify treatable myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias. A prudent perioperative beta-blocker and statin regimen can reduce cardiac complications and mortality without increasing the risk of stroke in intermediate to high-risk patients. The use of circulatory assist devices might improve outcomes after major surgery in patients with severely reduced left ventricular function. SUMMARY: Systematic preoperative assessment can identify patients at high risk of cardiac complications and guide the application of appropriate risk reduction strategies.

Additional Metadata
Keywords noncardiac surgery, risk reduction, risk stratification
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0b013e328348d40f, hdl.handle.net/1765/34162
Citation
Bakker, E.J., Ravensbergen, N.J.C., & Poldermans, D.. (2011). Perioperative cardiac evaluation, monitoring, and risk reduction strategies in noncardiac surgery patients. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 17(5), 409–415. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e328348d40f