Background: Oblique and paramedian rare facial clefts impose a major reconstructive challenge and long-term assessments of the outcomes remain scarce. This study provides new details regarding surgical techniques and timing, influence of growth, and difficulties of this pathology on the long-term; a guideline for surgical treatment is given. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with an oblique or paramedian facial cleft and surgically treated in the authors' unit between 1969 and 2009, were included. The long-term evaluation was based on series of photographs, 3D-CT's, X-rays, operation data, and was specified per facial area. Results: The mean number of performed operations per patient was 10.6 (range: 1-26). Vertical dystopia is not caused by previous surgery, but by growth deficiencies of the maxilla. In all patients with vertical dystopia, its presence and severity were clear at the age of five, and it should ideally be treated shortly after that age. In mild cases grafting seems sufficient, but in more severe cases orbital translocation is necessary. Costochondral grafts showed the best long-term results in both orbital and nasal reconstructions. Major nose reconstruction is best delayed until adolescence. For an optimal final result in selected cases, correction of midface hypoplasia at adolescence is necessary. Conclusion: The three-dimensional underdevelopment of the midface region plays a central role in the deformities of most patients, but is complex and difficult to correct. The provided guideline should help to minimize the number of operations and ameliorate long-term results.

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Keywords Long-term results, Oblique, Paramedian, Rare facial clefts, Surgical treatment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2011.04.021, hdl.handle.net/1765/34576
Citation
Versnel, S.L., van den Elzen, M.E.P., Wolvius, E.B., Biesmeijer, C.S., Vaandrager, J.M., van der Meulen, J.C.H.M., & Mathijssen, I.M.J.. (2011). Long-term results after 40 years experience with treatment of rare facial clefts: Part 1-oblique and paramedian clefts. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 64(10), 1334–1343. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2011.04.021