Background-The age, creatinine, and ejection fraction (ACEF) score (age/left ventricular ejection fraction+1 if creatinine >2.0 mg/dL) has been established as an effective predictor of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery; however, its utility in "all-comer" patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is yet unexplored. Methods and Results-The ACEF score was calculated for 1208 of the 1707 patients enrolled in the LEADERS trial. Post hoc analysis was performed by stratifying clinical outcomes at the 1-year follow-up according to ACEF score tertiles: ACEFlow≤1.0225, 1.0225< ACEFmid≤1.277, and ACEFhigh>1.277. At 1-year follow-up, there was a significantly lower number of patients with major adverse cardiac event-free survival in the highest tertile of the ACEF score (ACEFlow=92.1%, ACEFmid=89.5%, and ACEFhigh=86.1%; P=0.0218). Cardiac death was less frequent in ACEFlowthan in ACEFmidand ACEFhigh(0.7% vs 2.2% vs 4.5%; hazard ratio=2.22, P=0.002) patients. Rates of myocardial infarction were significantly higher in patients with a high ACEF score (6.7% for ACEFhighvs 5.2% for ACEFmidand 2.5% for ACEFlow; hazard ratio=1.6, P=0.006). Clinically driven target-vessel revascularization also tended to be higher in the ACEFhighgroup, but the difference among the 3 groups did not reach statistical significance. The rate of composite definite, possible, and probable stent thrombosis was also higher in the ACEFhighgroup (ACEFlow=1.2%, ACEFmid=3.5%, and ACEFhigh=6.2%; hazard ratio=2.04, P=0.001). Conclusions-ACEF score may be a simple way to stratify risk of events in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention with respect to mortality and risk of myocardial infarction.

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Keywords ACEF score, Biodegradable polymer, Biolimus-eluting stent, Cardiac death, Major adverse cardiac event, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Syntax score
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Wykrzykowska, J.J., Garg, S.A., Onuma, Y., de Vries, A., Goedhart, D., Morel, M-A.M., … Serruys, P.W.J.C.. (2011). Value of age, creatinine, and ejection fraction (acef score) in assessing risk in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions in the 'All-Comers' LEADERS Trial. Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions, 4(1), 47–56. doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.958389