Aims. We investigated the effect of HR-HPV infection on the capacity of the cytokine network in whole blood cultures during carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Methods. Thirty-nine women with moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, cervical carcinoma, or without dysplasia formed the study group. The control group consisted of 10 HR-HPV-negative women without CIN. Whole blood cultures were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 12 (IL-12), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were determined by ELISAs. Results. A significant increase in cytokine release was detected in HR-HPV-positive women without dysplasia. In women with cervical cancer, release of IFNγ and IL-12 was of the same magnitude as in HR-HPV-positive women without clinical manifestations. Most Th1-type/Th2-type ratios decreased form CIN II to CIN III, and increased from CIN III to invasive carcinoma. Conclusions. (1) Infection with HR-HPV without expression of cervical dysplasia induces activation of the cytokine network. (2) Increases in ratios of Th1-type to Th2-type cytokines at the stage of cervical carcinoma were found by comparison with stage CIN III. (3) Significant changes in the kinetics of cytokine release to a Th2-type immune response in blood of women withcervical dysplasia occurred progressively from CIN II to CIN III. Copyright

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Bais, A.G., Beckmann, I., Ewing, P.C., Eijkemans, M.J.C., Meijer, C.J.L.M., Snijders, P.J.F., & Helmerhorst, T.J.M.. (2007). Cytokine release in HR-HPV(+) women without and with cervical dysplasia (CIN II and III) or carcinoma, compared with HR-HPV(-) controls. Mediators of Inflammation, 2007. doi:10.1155/2007/24147