Prevention of restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty: rationale and design of the Fluvavastatin Angioplasty Restenosis (FLARE) Trial
Prevention of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) continues to present the greatest therapeutic challenge in interventional cardiology. Experimental and pathological studies describe restenosis as no more than the biologic healing response to arterial injury. Studies of serial quantitative coronary angiography have demonstrated that this biologic process may be measured as the loss in minimal luminal diameter (MLD) from post-PTCA to follow-up angiography and that it is essentially ubiquitous and normally distributed. Thus, quantitative coronary angiography has become the gold standard for evaluation of the angiographic outcome of clinical trials of new agents and devices aimed at prevention of restenosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors inhibit biosynthesis of mevalonate, a precursor of non-sterol compounds involved in cell proliferation, and thus may control the neointimal response, which forms the kernel of restenosis. Experimental evidence suggests that fluvastatin may exert a greater direct inhibitory effect on proliferating vascular myocytes than other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, independent of any lipid-lowering action. The Fluvastatin Angioplasty Restenosis (FLARE) Trial was conceived, in collaboration between the Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and Sandoz Pharma, to evaluate the ability of fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily to reduce restenosis after successful single-lesion PTCA. Treatment of suitable patients begins 2 weeks before PTCA and continues after successful PTCA (residual diameter stenosis < 50%, without major cardiac complications) to follow-up angiography at 26 +/- 2 weeks. Restenosis is measured by quantitative coronary angiography at a core laboratory as the loss in MLD from post-PTCA to follow-up angiography. It is calculated (90% power, alpha = 0.05) that 730 evaluable patients will be needed to test the hypothesis that fluvastatin will reduce the expected post-PTCA loss in MLD by 40%. Serial lipid analysis will be carried out at a central laboratory. Trial evaluation is focused on the primary endpoint (change in MLD) but includes primary clinical endpoints (death, myocardial infarction, or the need for coronary artery bypass graft surgery or reintervention up to 40 weeks after PTCA) as well as secondary and tertiary clinical, angiographic, and laboratory endpoints. According to this methodologic approach, the effect of fluvastatin in luminal renarrowing and clinical events after successful PTCA as well as possible associations of lipid parameters with restenosis can be comprehensively investigated.
|Keywords||*Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary, *Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors, 0 (Anticholesteremic Agents), 0 (Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated), 0 (Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors), 0 (Indoles), 75330-75-5 (Lovastatin), 93957-54-1 (fluvastatin), Anticholesteremic Agents/*therapeutic use, Belgium, Combined Modality Therapy, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Disease/*prevention & control/radiography/therapy, Double-Blind Method, Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/*therapeutic use, Great Britain, Human, Indoles/*therapeutic use, Ireland, Lovastatin/therapeutic use, Netherlands, Recurrence, Research Design, Spain, Time Factors|
Bonnier, J.J.R.M., Jackson, G., Miguel, C.M., Shepherd, J., Vrolix, M.C., Serruys, P.W.J.C., & Foley, D.P.. (1994). Prevention of restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty: rationale and design of the Fluvavastatin Angioplasty Restenosis (FLARE) Trial. The American Journal of Cardiology, 73, 50–61. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/4604