Total Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach to managing a company. TQM is systematic in the sense that it is uses facts through observation, analysis and measurable goals. There are theoretical descriptions of this management concept, but there is no formal model of it. A formal model can give a very precise description of the concept and will be useful in organisations that consider to use TQM. Furthermore it can give organisations that have adopted TQM already more insight into their own situation. We will use the formal modelling method Paradigm as this method can give a clear description of systems in which communication plays an important role. To be more precise, Paradigm is a modelling method for parallel behaviour that shows in detail the interaction among components. We present two models in this paper: one for reactive improvement, both with and without a role for a separate manager, and a model for proactive improvement. The models are not normative in the sense that companies should exactly use TQM as we describe it in order to do it successfully. At the other hand the models are also not theoretical in the sense that they give a precise description of the theory concerning TQM as this is known of books and articles. Moreover, by making the Paradigm models we had to add details to TQM that are not described in informal descriptions of books and articles. The application of Paradigm shows much more detail in the management of the improvement processes. It provides insight as to when a manager using TQM can and probably should make choices and decisions regarding the improvement process. Furthermore, the models show that precise communication between the parties involved is of crucial importance to apply TQM.

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Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/467
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van der Made-Potuijt, S.C., Bertsch, H.B., & Groenewegen, L.P.J.. (1996). A formal model for total quality management. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/467