N-terminal myristoylation is required for membrane localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II
The apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells harbors a unique isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK type II) which acts as a key regulator of ion transport systems, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-chloride channel. To explore the mechanism of cGK II membrane-anchoring, recombinant cGK II was expressed stably in HEK 293 cells or transiently in COS-1 cells. In both cell lines, cGK II was found predominantly in the particulate fraction. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized cGK II did not reveal any other tightly associated proteins, suggesting a membrane binding motif within cGK II itself. The primary structure of cGK II is devoid of hydrophobic transmembrane domains; cGK II does, however, contain a penultimate glycine, a potential acceptor for a myristoyl moiety. Metabolic labeling showed that cGK II was indeed able to incorporate [3H]myristate. Moreover, incubation of cGK II-expressing 293 cells with the myristoylation inhibitor 2-hydroxymyristic acid (1 mM) significantly increased the proportion of cGK II in the cytosol from 10 +/- 5 to 35 +/- 4%. Furthermore, a nonmyristoylated cGK II Gly2 --> Ala mutant was localized predominantly in the cytosol after transient expression in COS-1 cells. The absence of the myristoyl group did not affect the specific enzyme activity or the Ka for cGMP and only slightly enhanced the thermal stability of cGK II. These results indicate that N-terminal myristoylation fulfills a crucial role in directing cGK II to the membrane.
|Keywords||Animals, Base Sequence, Cell Line, Cell Membrane/enzymology, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism, DNA Primers, Humans, Isoenzymes/*metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Myristic Acid, Myristic Acids/*metabolism, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Substrate Specificity|
Vaandrager, A.B., Ehlert, E.M.E., Jarchau, T., Lohmann, S.M., & de Jonge, H.R.. (1996). N-terminal myristoylation is required for membrane localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/8611