Short-term growth and substrate use in very-low-birth-weight infants fed formulas with different energy contents
BACKGROUND: Currently available preterm formulas with energy contents of 3350 kJ (800 kcal)/L promote weight and length gain at rates at or above intrauterine growth rates but disproportionately increase total body fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether fat accretion in formula-fed, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants could be decreased and net protein gain maintained by reducing energy intakes from 502 kJ (80 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1) [normal-energy (NE) formula] to 419 kJ (100 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1) [low-energy (LE) formula] while providing similar protein intakes (3.3 g*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1)). DESIGN: The study was a randomized, controlled trial enrolling 20 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 16 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) VLBW infants (mean birth weight: 1.1 kg; mean gestational age: 31 wk); energy expenditure and nutrient balance were measured at 4 wk of age and anthropometric measurements were made when infants weighed 2 kg. RESULTS: The percentage of fat in newly formed tissue was significantly lower in AGA infants fed the LE formula (n = 9) than in those fed the NE formula (n = 10) (9% compared with 23%; analysis of variance, P = 0.001). Energy expenditure was higher in AGA infants fed the NE formula than in those fed the LE formula. Skinfold thickness was markedly lower in AGA infants fed the LE formula than in those fed the NE formula, resulting in a lower estimated percentage body fat (8.0 +/- 1.9% and 10.8 +/- 3.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three of 6 SGA infants fed the LE formula were excluded during the study because of poor weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Body composition can easily be altered by changing the energy intakes of formula-fed VLBW infants. Energy intakes in these infants should be >419 kJ (100 kcal)*kg(-)(1)*d(-)(1).
|Keywords||*Energy Intake, *Infant Food, Adipose Tissue, Calorimetry, Indirect, Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage, Energy Metabolism, Gestational Age, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/*growth & development, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Skinfold Thickness, Weight Gain|
van Goudoever, J.B., Sulkers, E.J., Lafeber, H.N., & Sauer, P.J.J.. (2000). Short-term growth and substrate use in very-low-birth-weight infants fed formulas with different energy contents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/9284