Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in serum and peritoneal exudate during continuous versus intermittent administration to patients with severe intra-abdominal infections
Ceftazidime demonstrates time-dependent killing, which is maximal at 4 x or 5 x MIC for the organism, consequently continuous infusion (CI) has been proposed to ensure adequate ceftazidime concentrations for the entire course of therapy. Severe intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) require surgical or percutaneous drainage for management, and ceftazidime is frequently prescribed. Cardiovascular or metabolic changes and renal or liver dysfunction may alter drug pharmacokinetics during severe IAIs, and no data exist on concentrations of ceftazidime reached in the peritoneal fluid. The objectives here were to determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime during continuous and intermittent administration in patients with severe IAIs, and to measure the concentrations of ceftazidime in the peritoneal exudate. Eighteen surgical patients with severe IAI and a creatinine clearance of >30 mL/min were studied. A non-randomized pilot study of six patients treated with CI alone was followed by a prospective, randomized comparative study of 12 patients. Pilot study patients received ceftazidime 1 g iv followed by a 4.5 g CI over 24 h. Randomized patients received either ceftazidime continuously as above or 1.5 g tds. Samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected on days 2 and 4. Ceftazidime concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. CI resulted in a mean serum concentration >40 mg/L and a T> 4 x MIC for most pathogens encountered in severe IAIs for >90% of the course of therapy in both serum and peritoneal exudate. Eight-hourly administration resulted in T> 4 x MIC for most pathogens encountered in severe IAIs for >90% of the dosing interval, but in peritoneal exudate for only 44% of the dosing interval. During CI, AUCs in the peritoneal exudate were c. 60% of the concomitant serum AUCs. In critically ill surgical patients with severe IAIs, CI of ceftazidime resulted in more favourable concentrations in serum and peritoneal exudate than 8-hourly bolus infusion.
|Keywords||Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Ascitic Fluid/*metabolism, Bacterial Infections/*blood/drug therapy, Ceftazidime/administration & dosage/*blood/*pharmacokinetics, Cephalosporins/administration & dosage/*blood/*pharmacokinetics, Comparative Study, Humans, Infusions, Intravenous, Middle aged, Peritonitis/*blood/drug therapy, Pilot Projects, Prospective Studies, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Statistics, Nonparametric|
Buijk, S.L., Gyssens, I.C., Mouton, J.W., van Vliet, A., Verbrugh, H.A., & Bruining, H.A.. (2002). Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in serum and peritoneal exudate during continuous versus intermittent administration to patients with severe intra-abdominal infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/9811