Benchmarking urban networking strategies in Europe
This paper provides an attempt to evaluate the nature and efficiency of urban networking strategies. Chorems are introduced as a possible comparison tool on spatial structures. A case study of Normandy Metropole and South Coast Metropole is analysed. Results show that the territorial integration of the regional environments are important factors in realizing efficient networking strategies among cities. However, such efficiency shall be linked with cultural and institutional factors. One result is that the efficiency of urban networking depends on the level of local autonomy. The English case performs better due to lacks of individual budgets of the different municipalities, while the French case has less efficiency due to increased decentralisation since the early 1980s.