Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-beta3 and fibronectin.
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Rotavirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis and dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is an enterotoxin that was identified as an important agent in symptomatic rotavirus infection. To identify cellular proteins that interact with NSP4, a two-hybrid technique with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. NSP4 cDNA, derived from the human rotavirus strain Wa, was cloned into the yeast shuttle vector pGBKT7. An intestinal cDNA library derived from Caco-2 cells cloned into the yeast shuttle vector pGAD10 was screened for proteins that interact with NSP4. Protein interactions were confirmed in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical colocalization. After two-hybrid library screening, we repeatedly isolated cDNAs encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin-beta3 (amino acids [aa] 274 to 878) and a cDNA encoding the ECM protein fibronectin (aa 1755 to 1884). Using deletion mutants of NSP4, we mapped the region of interaction with the ECM proteins between aa 87 and 145. Deletion analysis of laminin-beta3 indicated that the region comprising aa 726 to 875 of laminin-beta3 interacts with NSP4. Interaction of NSP4 with either laminin-beta3 or fibronectin was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. NSP4 was present in infected enterocytes and in the basement membrane (BM) of infected neonatal mice and colocalized with laminin-beta3, indicating a physiological interaction. In conclusion, two-hybrid screening with NSP4 yielded two potential target proteins, laminin-beta3 and fibronectin, interacting with the enterotoxin NSP4. The release of NSP4 from the basal side of infected epithelial cells and the subsequent binding to ECM proteins localized at the BM may signify a new mechanism by which rotavirus disease is established.
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Binding Sites/genetics
- Mice, Inbred BALB C
- Sequence Deletion
- Protein Structure, Tertiary
- Two-Hybrid System Techniques
- Caco-2 Cells
- DNA, Viral/genetics
- Rotavirus Infections/etiology/virology
- Toxins, Biological
- Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism