Contribution of endothelin to coronary vasomotor tone is abolished after myocardial infarction.
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Left ventricular dysfunction in swine with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with neurohumoral activation, including increased catecholamines and endothelin (ET). Although the increase in ET may serve to maintain blood pressure and, hence, perfusion of essential organs such as the heart and brain, it could also compromise myocardial perfusion by evoking coronary vasoconstriction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous ET contributes to perturbations in myocardial O2 balance during exercise in remodeled myocardium of swine with a recent MI. For this purpose, 26 chronically instrumented swine (10 with and 16 without MI) were studied at rest and while running on a treadmill at 1-4 km/h. After MI, plasma ET increased from 3.2 +/- 0.4 to 4.9 +/- 0.3 pM (P < 0.05). In normal swine, blockade of ETA (by EMD-122946) or ETA-ETB (by tezosentan) receptors resulted in an increase in coronary venous PO2, i.e., coronary vasodilation at rest, which decreased during exercise. In contrast, neither ETA nor ETA-ETB receptor blockade resulted in coronary vasodilation in swine with MI. Coronary vasoconstriction to intravenous ET-1 infusion in awake resting swine was blunted after MI. To investigate whether factors released by cardiac myocytes contributed to decreased vascular responsiveness to ET, we performed ET-1 dose-response curves in isolated coronary arterioles (70-200 microm). Vasoconstriction to ET-1 in isolated arterioles from MI swine was enhanced. In conclusion, the vasoconstrictor influence of endogenous as well as exogenous ET on coronary circulation in vivo is reduced. Because the response of isolated coronary arterioles to ET is increased after MI, the reduced vasoconstrictor influence in vivo suggests modulation of ET receptor sensitivity by cardiac myocytes, which may serve to maintain adequate myocardial perfusion.
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
- Coronary Circulation/drug effects/*physiology
- Sus scrofa
- Arterioles/drug effects/physiology
- Myocardial Infarction/*metabolism/*physiopathology
- Receptor, Endothelin A/antagonists & inhibitors
- Receptor, Endothelin B/antagonists & inhibitors
- Vasoconstriction/drug effects/physiology