On the Dual Test for SSD Efficiency: With an Application to Momentum Investment Strategies
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This paper analyzes the dual formulation of Post’s [Post, T., 2003. Empirical tests for stochastic dominance efficiency. Journal of Finance 58, 1905–1932] test for second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) efficiency of a given investment portfolio relative to all possible portfolios formed from set of assets. In contrast to the earlier work, we (1) provide a direct proof for the dual that does not rely on expected utility theory, (2) adhere to the original definition of SSD, (3) phrase in terms of a general polyhedral portfolio possibilities set and (4) construct a SSD dominating benchmark portfolio from the optimal solution. To illustrate the dual SSD test, we apply the test to analyze the effect of short-selling restrictions on the profitability of momentum investment strategies.