Retrograde catheterization of haemodialysis fistulae and grafts: Angiographic depiction of the entire vascular access tree and stenosis treatment
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Background. The European Best Practice Guidelines on Vascular Access propose magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of dysfunctional dialysis fistulae and grafts if visualization of the complete arterial inflow and outflow vessels is needed. In a prospective multi-centre study we determined the technical success rate of complete vascular access tree depiction by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as an alternative to MRA. Instead of a more invasive brachial artery of femoral artery approach, we performed a retrograde catheterization of the venous outflow or graft, and stenoses were treated in connection with DSA. Methods. A catheter was advanced into the central arterial inflow after retrograde puncture of the venous outflow or graft for depiction of the complete inflow, access region and complete outflow. Access DSA through femoral artery puncture was done if the retrograde approach failed to depict the complete vascular access tree. Stenoses with a luminal diameter reduction ≥50% were treated, if possible, in connection with DSA. Results. A total of 116 dysfunctional haemodialysis fistulae and 50 grafts were included. Retrograde DSA depicted the complete vascular tree in 162 patients (97.6%). The arteriovenous anastomosis of four fistulae could not be negotiated by a catheter. DSA demonstrated 247 significant stenoses: 30, 128 and 89 were located in the arterial inflow (12.1%), AV anastomosis and graft region (51.8%) and venous outflow (36.0%), respectively. Ten patients (6.0%) had no stenosis. Eight (4.8%), 55 (33.1%) and 33 (19.9%) patients demonstrated stenoses in only inflow, access region or outflow, respectively. Stenoses in two or three vascular territories were present in 53 (31.9%) and 7 (4.2%) patients, respectively. A technically successful endovascular intervention was obtained in 135 of the 139 patients (97.1%) who underwent angioplasty and/or stent placement. Additional sheath insertion by antegrade outflow puncture was needed in 46 patients (33.1%) for the treatment of coexisting venous outflow stenoses, located downstream from the retrograde positioned sheath. Two minor complications were observed at DSA/angioplasty. Conclusion. As an alternative to MRA, full retrograde DSA is safe and effective for stenosis detection and stenosis treatment. However, access evaluation by a non-invasive imaging modality such as colour duplex ultrasound will be sufficient in most cases as proximal inflow stenoses are encountered in a minority of patients. Full retrograde DSA, including complete arterial inflow depiction, may then be reserved for cases with an unsuccessful outcome following endovascular intervention of stenoses depicted at ultrasound.