Histologic chorioamnionitis, fetal involvement, and antenatal steroids: effects on neonatal outcome in preterm infants
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Objective: The objective of the study was to study the effects of histologic chorioamnionitis (HC) with or without fetal involvement and antenatal steroid (AS) exposure on neonatal outcome in a prospective cohort of preterm infants. Study Design: The clinical characteristics and placental histology were prospectively collected in 301 infants born at a gestational age 32.0 weeks or less in the Erasmus University Medical Center. Results: In univariable analyses, HC without fetal involvement (n = 53) was associated with decreased severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (11% vs 28%; P < .05), whereas HC with fetal involvement infants (n = 68) had more necrotizing enterocolitis (9% vs 2%; P < .05), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (25% vs 12%; P < .05), and neonatal mortality (19% vs 9%; P < .05). In HC without fetal involvement infants, AS reduced the incidences of RDS (43% vs 85%; P < .05) and IVH (5% vs 39%; P < .01). In multivariable analyses, HC without fetal involvement was associated with decreased severe RDS (odds ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.93; P < .05) and increased early-onset sepsis (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.83; P < .05). Conclusion: In a prospective cohort of preterm infants, multivariable analyses reveal only a modest association between histologic chorioamnionitis and neonatal outcome.