Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in NICU infants compared to normal hearing NICU controls
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Objectives: To evaluate independent etiologic factors associated with sensorineural hearing loss in infants who have been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit compared to normal hearing controls. Method: Between 2004 and 2009, 3366 infants were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Sophia Children's Hospital, of which 3316 were screened with AABR. A total of 103 infants were referred for auditory brainstem response analysis after failure on neonatal hearing screening. We included all infants diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. Each patient was matched with two normal hearing controls from the neonatal intensive care unit of the same gender and postconceptional age. The following risk factors were studied: birth weight, dysmorphic features, APGAR scores (at 1, 5 and 10. min), respiratory distress (IRDS), CMV infection, sepsis, meningitis, cerebral bleeding, cerebral infarction, hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, peak total bilirubin level, furosemide, dexamethason, vancomycin, gentamycin and tobramycin administration. Results: Fifty-eight infants were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss: 26 girls and 32 boys. The incidence of dysmorphic features (P= 0.000), low APGAR score (1. min) (P= 0.01), sepsis (P= 0.003), meningitis (P= 0.013), cerebral bleeding (P= 0.016) and cerebral infarction (P= 0.000) were significantly increased in infants with sensorineural hearing loss compared to normal hearing controls (n= 116). Conclusion: Dysmorphic features, low APGAR scores at 1. min, sepsis, meningitis, cerebral bleeding and cerebral infarction are associated with sensorineural hearing loss independent of neonatal intensive care unit admittance.
- Risk factor
- Hearing screening
- Neonatal intensive care unit
- Sensorineural hearing loss