Decentralised management of solid waste in Mumbai slums: Informal privatisation through patronage
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Following the introduction of urban decentralisation in Mumbai, neighbourhood level "Wards Committees" became responsible for solid waste management in the city slums. One innovative program, the "Slum Adoption Programme," aimed at motivating slum residents to undertake the cleaning of their slums through community organizations, in partnership with municipal officials. The program could not fulfill its high expectations of cleaner slums and community participation as it was undermined through the manipulation of powerful local stakeholders-especially municipal councillors. Their powers had increased after decentralisation and they formed informal alliances with local leaders of undemocratic community organisations. Neither efficiency gains, nor participation by the urban poor was achieved.