The Multiplicity of Citizenship: Transnational and Local Practices of Middle-Class Migrants.
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In this article we focus on local and transnational forms of active citizenship, understood as the sum of all political practices and processes of identification. Our study, conducted among middle-class immigrants in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, indicates that the importance of active transnational citizenship should not be overstated. Among these immigrants, political practices are primarily focused on the local level; political practices directed to the home country appear to be quite rare. However, although transnational activities in the public sphere are rather exceptional, many immigrants do participate in homeland-directed activities in the private sphere. If we look at processes of identification, we see that a majority of the middle-class immigrants have a strong local identity. Many of them combine this local identification with feelings of belonging to people in their home country.
- Sociale verandering, sociale processen en sociale conflicten
- The Netherlands
- Immigrant Middle Class
- Local Citizenship
- Political Participation
- Transnational Citizenship