Transnationalism and Dimensions of Citizenship
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In the international migration literature over recent decades there has been increasing interest in transnational movements and contacts. Researchers have shown that immigrants maintain economic, social, political and/or cultural ties with their home country (Basch et al. 1994; Levitt 2007; Portes 2000). The concept of transnationalism is not new. International migration tends to go hand-in-hand with intensive economic, social and cultural bonds between migrants and their family members and relatives at home (Engbersen et al. 2003). What is new, however, is the extent and diversity of these transnational ties, which can be explained by the availability of high-tech means of communication and transportation, such as cheap flights, longdistance telephone, the Internet, e-mail, and satellite television (Portes et al. 1999; Zhou 2004).