Normal biventricular function, volumes, and mass in children aged 8 to 17 Years
Purpose: To assess normal values for biventricular function, volumes, and mass with current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging sequences in children. Materials and Methods: Included in the study were 60 healthy children aged 8-17 years. A short axis set of contiguous slices was acquired with CMR imaging employing steady-state free precession. Biventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), and mass were determined. Uni- and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to study the interrelation of age, gender, and body surface area (BSA) on biventricular volumes and mass. The coefficient of variation was calculated for intra- and interobserver variability. Results: EF did not differ between boys and girls (mean LV-EF 69 ± (SD) 5%, mean RV-EF 65 ± 5%). BSA had good (EDV, mass) and modest (ESV) correlation with biventricular measurements. Gender appeared a significant modifier of these relations, whereas age had no independent contribution. The intra- and interobserver coefficient of variation was in the range 2.1%-13.9°/o for biventricular EDV, ESV,and mass. Conclusion: This study reveals gender-specific normative data for biventricular function, volumes, and mass in children age 8-17 years that can be used as reference data in the follow-up of pediatric cardiac patients.