Prediction of outcome in isolated methylmalonic acidurias: Combined use of clinical and biochemical parameters
Objectives: Isolated methylmalonic acidurias (MMAurias) are caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase or by defects in the synthesis of its cofactor 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. The aim of this study was to evaluate which parameters best predicted the long-term outcome. Methods: Standardized questionnaires were sent to 20 European metabolic centres asking for age at diagnosis, birth decade, diagnostic work-up, cobalamin responsiveness, enzymatic subgroup (mut0, mut-, cblA, cblB) and different aspects of long-term outcome. Results: 273 patients were included. Neonatal onset of the disease was associated with increased mortality rate, high frequency of developmental delay, and severe handicap. Cobalamin non-responsive patients with neonatal onset born in the 1970s and 1980s had a particularly poor outcome. A more favourable outcome was found in patients with late onset of symptoms, especially when cobalamin responsive or classified as mut-. Prevention of neonatal crises in pre-symptomatically diagnosed newborns was identified as a protective factor concerning handicap. Chronic renal failure manifested earlier in mut0patients than in other enzymatic subgroups. Conclusion: Outcome in MMAurias is best predicted by the enzymatic subgroup, cobalamin responsiveness, age at onset and birth decade. The prognosis is still unfavourable in patients with neonatal metabolic crises and non-responsiveness to cobalamin, in particular mut0patients.