Upstream Stimulatory Factors 1 and 2 activate the human hepatic lipase promoter via E-box dependent and independent mechanisms
We studied the transcriptional regulation of the HL gene by USF1 and USF2 in HepG2 cells. The transcriptional activity of the HL(- 685/+ 13) promoter construct was increased up to 25-fold by co-transfection with USF1 and USF2. Silencing of USF1 by RNA interference reduced promoter activity by 30-40%. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of endogenous USF1 and USF2 to the proximal HL promoter region. In gel shift assays, USF1 and USF2 bound to E-boxes at - 307/- 312 and - 510/- 516, and to the TATA-Inr region. Although the - 514C → T substitution abolished in vitro USF binding to the - 510/- 516 E-box, the increase in HL promoter activity by USF1 and USF2 was unaffected. Deletion and mutation analysis of the HL promoter region, and insertion of multiple E-box copies in front of a heterologous promoter, revealed that upregulation by USFs was mainly mediated through the - 307/- 312 E-box and the TATA-Inr region. We conclude that in HepG2 cells USF1 and USF2 regulate transcriptional activity of the HL gene through their binding to the E-box at - 307/- 312 and the TATA-Inr region.
- Hepatic lipase
- Promoter polymorphism
- Transcriptional regulation
- Upstream Stimulatory Factor 1
- Upstream Stimulatory Factor 2