Evaluation with in vivo optical coherence tomography and histology of the vascular effects of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold at two years following implantation in a healthy porcine coronary artery model: implications of pilot results for future pre-clinical studies
To quantify with in vivo OCT and histology, the device/vessel interaction after implantation of the bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). We evaluated the area and thickness of the strut voids previously occupied by the polymeric struts, and the neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) area covering the endoluminal surface of the strut voids (NIHEV), as well as the NIH area occupying the space between the strut voids (NIHBV), in healthy porcine coronary arteries at 2, 3 and 4 years after implantation of the device. Twenty-two polymeric BVS were implanted in the coronary arteries of 11 healthy Yucatan minipigs that underwent OCT at 2, 3 and 4 years after implantation, immediately followed by euthanasia. The areas and thicknesses of 60 corresponding strut voids previously occupied by the polymeric struts and the size of 60 corresponding NIHEVand 49 NIHBVwere evaluated with both OCT and histology by 2 independent observers, using a single quantitative analysis software for both techniques. At 3 and 4 years after implantation, the strut voids were no longer detectable by OCT or histology due to complete polymer resorption. However, analysis performed at 2 years still provided clear delineation of these structures, by both techniques. The median [ranges] areas of these strut voids were 0.04 [0.03-0.16] and 0.02 [0.01-0.07] mm2by histology and OCT, respectively. The mean (±SD) thickness by histology and OCT was 220 ± 40 and 120 ± 20 μm, respectively. The median [ranges] NIHEVby histology and OCT was 0.07 [0.04-0.20] and 0.03 [0.01-0.08] mm2, while the mean (±SD) NIHBVby histology and OCT was 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.06 mm2. Our study indicates that in vivo OCT of the BVS provides correlated measurements of the same order of magnitude as histomorphometry, and is reproducible for the evaluation of certain vascular and device-related characteristics. However, histology systematically gives larger values for all the measured structures compared to OCT, at 2 years post implantation.