Predictors of pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease
Aims:Data regarding pregnancy outcome in women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited.Methods and results: In 1802 women with CHD, 1302 completed pregnancies were observed. Independent predictors of cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal complications were calculated using logistic regression. The most prevalent cardiac complications during pregnancy were arrhythmias (4.7) and heart failure (1.6). Factors independently associated with maternal cardiac complications were the presence of cyanotic heart disease (corrected/uncorrected) (P < 0.0001), the use of cardiac medication before pregnancy (P < 0.0001), and left heart obstruction (P < 0.0001). New characteristics were mechanical valve replacement (P = 0.0014), and systemic (P = 0.04) or pulmonary atrioventricular valve regurgitation related with the underlying (moderately) complex CHD (P = 0.03). A new risk score for cardiac complications is proposed. The most prevalent obstetric complications were hypertensive complications (12.2). No correlation of maternal characteristics with adverse obstetric outcome was found. The most prevalent neonatal complications were premature birth (12), small for gestational age (14), and mortality (4). Cyanotic heart disease (corrected/uncorrected) (P = 0.0003), mechanical valve replacement (P = 0.03), maternal smoking (P = 0.007), multiple gestation (P = 0.0014), and the use of cardiac medication (P = 0.0009) correlated with adverse neonatal outcome.Conclusion: In our tertiary CHD cohort, cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal complications were frequently encountered, and (new) correlations of maternal baseline data with adverse outcome are reported. A new risk score for adverse cardiac complications is proposed, although prospective validation remains necessary.