Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy for prevention of sudden cardiac death in children in the Netherlands
Introduction: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is increasingly used in children. The purpose of this multicenter study is to evaluate mid-term clinical outcome and to identify predictors for device discharge in pediatric ICD recipients. Methods and Results: From 1995 to 2006, 45 patients in The Netherlands under the age of 18 years received an ICD. Mean age at implantation was 10.8 ± 5.2 years. Primary prevention (N = 22) and secondary prevention (N = 23) were equally distributed. Underlying cardiac disorders were primary electrical disease (55%), cardiomyopathy (20%), and congenital heart disease (17%). The follow-up was 44 ± 32.9 months. Three patients (7%) died and one patient (2%) underwent heart transplantation. ICD-related complications occurred in eight patients (17%), seven of whom had lead-related complications. Fourteen patients (31%) received appropriate ICD shocks; 12 patients (27%) received inappropriate ICD shocks. Fifty-five percent of 22 ICD recipients under the age of 12 years received appropriate shocks, which was higher as compared with 9% of 23 older ICD recipients (P = 0.003). Although the incidence of appropriate shocks in the present study was larger in secondary prevention (9/23; 39%) as compared with primary prevention (5/22; 23%), this difference did not reach significance. Conclusions: In our population of patients, children <12 years of age had more appropriate shocks than patients 13-18 years. The complication rate is low, and is mainly lead related.