Lower atovaquone/proguanil concentrations in patients taking efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir
HIV-infected travellers frequently use atovaquone/proguanil as malaria prophylaxis. We compared atovaquone/proguanil pharmacokinetics between healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients taking efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) area under the curve (AUC)0→t for atovaquone relative to the healthy volunteers was 0.25 (0.16-0.38), 0.26 (0.17-0.41) and 0.54 (0.35-0.83) for patients on efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir, respectively. Proguanil plasma concentrations were also significantly lower (38-43%). Physicians should be alert for atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis failures in patients taking efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir.