Determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus carriers in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals
OBJECTIVES: To identify determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in both hospitalized patients and individuals from the community in two urban centres in Indonesia. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus cultures and data on recent antibiotic use, demographic, socioeconomic, disease-related and healthcare-related variables were collected from 3995 community dwellers and hospitalized persons. Nasal S. aureus carriage was found in 362 persons (9.1%). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify which variables were independently associated with carriage of resistant S. aureus. RESULTS: The penicillins were the most frequently used antibiotics both in the community and in hospitalized patients. In the community, admission to a hospital was associated with carriage of S. aureus resistant to any of the tested antibiotics [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-4.9] and any tetracycline resistance (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.1). Having no symptoms was associated with less carriage of S. aureus with resistance to any of the tested antibiotics (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) and any tetracycline resistance (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Crowding (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.9) and low income (OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.8-43.9) were associated with multidrug resistance. In hospitalized patients, the use of penicillins was associated with resistance to any of the tested antibiotics (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4-11.6) and any tetracycline resistance (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.0). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic policies including proper diagnosis, treatment and drug delivery process should be made by healthcare providers in Indonesia to help limit the emergence of antibiotic resistance.