The structure of computer anxiety: a six-factor model.
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A six-factor model of computer anxiety was tested in two samples of university students. The dimensions involved were: computer literacy, self-efficacy, physical arousal caused by computers, affective feelings about them, beliefs about the beneficial effects of computers, and beliefs about their dehumanizing aspects. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that, compared to a number of alternative models proposed in the literature, the data fitted this six-factor model relatively well. In addition, it was demonstrated that computer literacy has a strong directional influence on both physical arousal and affects. Beliefs about computers, in turn, were shown to be dependent on affects and physical arousal. Self-efficacy mainly contributed to increased computer literacy. These findings suggest that training programs that enhance self-efficacy and computer literacy may in principle reduce computer anxiety.