Incidence and Correlates of Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis in Routine Clinical Practice. 4-Year Results From a Large 2-Institutional Cohort Study
Objectives: We sought to determine the risk of late stent thrombosis (ST) during long-term follow-up beyond 3 years, searched for predictors, and assessed the impact of ST on overall mortality. Background: Late ST was reported to occur at an annual rate of 0.6% up to 3 years after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Methods: A total of 8,146 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) (n = 3,823) or paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) (n = 4,323) and were followed up to 4 years after stent implantation. Dual antiplatelet treatment was prescribed for 6 to 12 months. Results: Definite ST occurred in 192 of 8,146 patients with an incidence density of 1.0/100 patient-years and a cumulative incidence of 3.3% at 4 years. The hazard of ST continued at a steady rate of 0.53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44 to 0.64) between 30 days and 4 years. Diabetes was an independent predictor of early ST (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.28), and acute coronary syndrome (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.51), younger age (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99), and use of PES (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.56) were independent predictors of late ST. Rates of death and myocardial infarction at 4 years were 10.6% and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions: Late ST occurs steadily at an annual rate of 0.4% to 0.6% for up to 4 years. Diabetes is an independent predictor of early ST, whereas acute coronary syndrome, younger age, and PES implantation are associated with late ST.