The injury list of all deficits (LOAD) framework - conceptualising the full range of deficits and adverse outcomes following injury and violence
Over recent years, there has been increasing recognition that the burden of injuries and violence includes more than just the direct and indirect monetary costs associated with their medical outcomes. However, quantification of the total burden has been seriously hampered by lack of a framework for considering the range of outcomes which comprise the burden, poor identification of the outcomes and their imprecise measurement. This article proposes a new conceptual framework, the List of All Deficits (or LOAD) Framework, that has been developed from extensive expert discussion and consensus meetings to facilitate the measurement of the full burden of injuries and violence. The LOAD Framework recognises the multidimensional nature of injury burden across individual, family and societal domains. This classification of potential consequences of injury was built on the International Classification of Functioning concept of disability. Examples of empirical support for each consequence were obtained from the scientific literature. Determining the multidimensional injury burden requires the assessment and combination of 20 domains of potential consequences. The resulting LOAD Framework classification and concept diagram describes 12 groups of injury consequences for individuals, three for family and close friends and five for wider society. Understanding the extent of the negative implications (or deficits) of injury, through application of the LOAD Framework, is needed to put existing burden of injury studies into context and to highlight the inter-relationship between the direct and indirect burden of injury relative to other conditions.