Lenalidomide maintenance after nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma is not feasible: Results of the HOVON 76 Trial
To improve the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in multiple myeloma as part of first-line treatment, we prospectively investigated the feasibility and efficacy of lenalidomide maintenance. Patients started maintenance 1 to 6 months after nonmyeloablative allo-SCT. Lenalidomide was dosed 10 mg on days 1 to 21 of a 28-day schedule for a total of 24 cycles. Peripheral blood samples were taken to evaluate immune modulating effects. Thirty-five eligible patients were enrolled, and 30 started with lenalidomide. After 2 cycles, 14 patients (47%) had to stop treatment, mainly because of the development of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD). In total, 13 patients (43%) stopped treatment because of development of GVHD, 5 patients (17%) because of other adverse events, and 5 patients (17%) because of progression. Responses improved in 37% of patients, and the estimated 1-year progression-free survival from start of maintenance was 69% (90% confidence interval, 53%-81%). Lenalidomide increased the frequency of human leukocyte antigen-DR+T cells and regulatory T cells, without correlation with clinical parameters. In conclusion, lenalidomide maintenance 10 mg daily after nonmyeloablative allo-SCT with unmanipulated graft in multiple myeloma patients is not feasible, mainly because of the induction of acute GVHD. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as #NTR1645.