Genomic alterations that contribute to the development of isolated and non-isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life threatening birth defect. Most of the genetic factors that contribute to the development of CDH remain unidentified. Objective: To identify genomic alterations that contribute to the development of diaphragmatic defects. Methods: A cohort of 45 unrelated patients with CDH or diaphragmatic eventrations was screened for genomic alterations by array comparative genomic hybridisation or single nucleotide polymorphism based copy number analysis. Results: Genomic alterations that were likely to have contributed to the development of CDH were identified in 8 patients. Inherited deletions of ZFPM2 were identified in 2 patients with isolated diaphragmatic defects and a large de novo 8q deletion overlapping the same gene was found in a patient with non-isolated CDH. A de novo microdeletion of chromosome 1q41q42 and two de novo microdeletions on chromosome 16p11.2 were identified in patients with non-isolated CDH. Duplications of distal 11q and proximal 13q were found in a patient with non-isolated CDH and a de novo single gene deletion of FZD2 was identified in a patient with a partial pentalogy of Cantrellphenotype.Conclusion: Haploinsufficiency of ZFPM2 can cause dominantly inherited isolated diaphragmatic defects with incomplete penetrance. These data define a new minimal deleted region for CDH on 1q41q42, provide evidence for the existence of CDH related genes on chromosomes 16p11.2, 11q23-24 and 13q12, and suggest a possible role for FZD2 and Wnt signalling in pentalogy of Cantrell phenotypes. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of screening for genomic alterations in individuals with both isolated and non-isolated diaphragmatic defects.