Risk factors for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in NICU infants compared to normal-hearing NICU controls
Objectives: To evaluate independent etiologic factors associated with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in infants who have been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) compared to normal-hearing controls. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: We included all infants (n = 9) with the ANSD profile admitted to the NICU of Sophia Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2009. Each patient was matched with four normal-hearing controls of the same gender and postconceptional age. The following possible risk factors were studied: birth weight, dysmorphic features, APGAR scores (at 1, 5, and 10 minutes), respiratory distress (IRDS), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, sepsis, meningitis, cerebral bleeding, hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, peak total bilirubin level, furosemide, dexamethason, vancomycin, gentamycin, and tobramycin administration. Results: Nine infants met the ANSD criteria in one or both ears. IRDS (P =.02), meningitis (P =.04), and vancomycin administration (P =.009) were significantly increased in infants with ANSD compared to controls. Conclusions: In high-risk NICU infants IRDS, meningitis and vancomycin administration are associated with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.