Manifest disease, risk factors for sudden cardiac death, and cardiac events in a large nationwide cohort of predictively tested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: Determining the best cardiological screening strategy
Aims We investigated the presence of a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD), and cardiac events during follow-up in predictively tested-not known to have a clinical diagnosis of HCM before the DNA test-carriers of a sarcomeric gene mutation and associations with age and gender to determine the best cardiological screening strategy. Methods and results One hundred and thirty-six (30%) of 446 mutation carriers were diagnosed with HCM at one or more cardiological evaluation(s). Male gender and higher age were associated with manifest disease. Incidence of newly diagnosed manifest HCM was <10% per person-year under the age of 40 years and > 10% in older carriers, although numbers were small in carriers <15 years. Twenty-three percent of carriers, with and without manifest disease, had established risk factor(s) for SCD (no significant difference). During an average follow-up of 3.5±1.7 years two carriers, both with manifest disease, died suddenly (0.13% per person-year). A high-risk status for SCD (≥2 risk factors and manifest HCM) was present in 17 carriers during follow-up (2.4% per person-year). Age but not gender was associated with a high-risk status for SCD. Conclusion Thirty percent of carriers had or developed manifest HCM after predictive DNA testing and risk factors for SCD were frequently present. Our data suggest that the SCD risk is low and risk stratification for SCD can be omitted in carriers without manifest disease and that frequency of cardiological evaluations can possibly be decreased in carriers between 15 and 40 years as long as hypertrophy is absent.