Fifteen-year radiotherapy outcomes of the randomized PORTEC-1 trial for Endometrial Carcinoma
Purpose: To evaluate the very long-term results of the randomized Post Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma (PORTEC)-1 trial for patients with Stage I endometrial carcinoma (EC), focusing on the role of prognostic factors for treatment selection and the long-term risk of second cancers. Patients and Methods: The PORTEC trial (1990-1997) included 714 patients with Stage IC Grade 1-2 or Stage IB Grade 2-3 EC. After surgery, patients were randomly allocated to external-beam pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT) or no additional treatment (NAT). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results: 426 patients were alive at the date of analysis. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years. The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates were 6% for EBRT vs. 15.5% for NAT (p < 0.0001). The 15-year overall survival was 52% vs. 60% (p = 0.14), and the failure-free survival was 50% vs. 54% (p = 0.94). For patients with high-intermediate risk criteria, the 15-year overall survival was 41% vs. 48% (p = 0.51), and the 15-year EC-related death was 14% vs. 13%. Most LRR in the NAT group were vaginal recurrences (11.0% of 15.5%). The 15-year rates of distant metastases were 9% vs. 7% (p = 0.25). Second primary cancers had been diagnosed over 15 years in 19% of all patients, 22% vs. 16% for EBRT vs. NAT (p = 0.10), with observed vs. expected ratios of 1.6 (EBRT) and 1.2 (NAT) compared with a matched population (p = NS). Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostic significance of Grade 3 for LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 3.4, p = 0.0003) and for EC death (HR 7.3, p < 0.0001), of age >60 (HR 3.9, p = 0.002 for LRR and 2.7, p = 0.01 for EC death) and myometrial invasion >50% (HR 1.9, p = 0.03 and HR 1.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The 15-year outcomes of PORTEC-1 confirm the relevance of HIR criteria for treatment selection, and a trend for long-term risk of second cancers. EBRT should be avoided in patients with low- and intermediate-risk EC.