Activation of the PI3K pathway increases TLR-induced TNF-and IL-6 but reduces IL-1β production in mast cells
Recognition of bacterial constituents by mast cells (MCs) is dependent on the presence of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The final cellular response, however, depends on the influence of multiple environmental factors. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the PI3K-activating ligands insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, antigen, and Steel Factor (SF) are able to modulate the TLR4-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines in murine MCs. Costimulation with any of these ligands caused increased LPS-triggered secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, but attenuated the production of IL-1β, though all three cytokines were produced in an NFκB-dependent manner. The pan-specific PI3K-inhibitor Wortmannin reverted the altered production of these cytokines. In agreement, MCs deficient for SHIP1, a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, showed augmented secretion of IL-6/TNF-α and reduced production of IL-1β in response to LPS alone. The differential effects of IGF-1 on TLR4-mediated cytokine production were also observed in the context of TLR2 and IL-33 receptor-mediated MC activation. Importantly, these effects were seen in both bone marrow-derived and peritoneal MCs, suggesting general relevance for MCs. Using pharmacological and genetic tools, we could show that the p110Δ isoform of PI3K is strongly implicated in SF-triggered suppression of LPS-induced IL-1β production. Costimulation with antigen was affected to a lesser extent. In conclusion, NFκB-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines in MCs is differentially controlled by PI3K-activating ligand/receptor systems.