NMR and pattern recognition can distinguish neuroinflammation and peripheral inflammation
Multiple Sclerosis (MScl) is a neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, associated with chronic neuroinflammation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), being in closest interaction with CNS, was used to profile neuroinflammation to discover disease-specific markers. We used the commonly accepted animal model for the neuroinflammatory aspect of MScl: the experimental autoimmune/allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). A combination of advanced1H NMR spectroscopy and pattern recognition methods was used to establish the metabolic profile of CSF of EAE-affected rats (representing neuroinflammation) and of two control groups (healthy and peripherally inflamed) to detect specific markers for early neuroinflammation. We found that the CSF metabolic profile for neuroinflammation is distinct from healthy and peripheral inflammation and characterized by changes in concentrations of metabolites such as creatine, arginine, and lysine. Using these disease-specific markers, we were able to detect early stage neuroinflammation, with high accuracy in a second independent set of animals. This confirms the predictive value of these markers. These findings from the EAE model may help to develop a molecular diagnosis for the early stage MScl in humans.