Status epilepticus in children with epilepsy: Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood
Purpose: To study course and outcome of epilepsy in children having had a status epilepticus (SE) as the presenting sign or after the diagnosis. Methods: A total of 494 children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, aged 1 month through 15 years, were followed prospectively for 5 years. Results: A total of 47 Children had SE. Forty-one of them had SE when epilepsy was diagnosed. For 32 (78%), SE was the first seizure. SE recurred in 13 out of 41 (32%). Terminal remission at 5 years (TR5) was not significantly worse for these 41 children: 31.7% had a TR5 <1 year versus 21.2% of 447 children without SE. They were not more often intractable. Five out of six children with first SE after diagnosis had a TR5 <1 year. Mortality was not significantly increased for children with SE. Independent factors associated with SE at presentation were remote symptomatic and cryptogenic etiology, and a history of febrile convulsions. Children with first SE after inclusion more often had symptomatic etiology. Conclusions: Although we find a trend for shorter TR5 in children with SE at presentation, outcome and mortality are not significantly worse. Etiology is an important factor for prognosis. Children with SE during the course of their epilepsy have a worse prognosis and a high recurrence rate of SE. This outcome is not due to the SE itself, but related to the etiology and type of epilepsy. The occurrence of SE is just an indicator of the severity of the disease.