Results of a HOVON/SAKK donor versus no-donor analysis of myeloablative HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation in first remission acute myeloid leukemia in young and middle-aged adults: Benefits for whom?
The Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (HOVON-SAKK) collaborative study group evaluated out-come of patients (pts) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first remission (CR1) entered in 3 consecutive studies according to a donor versus no-donor comparison. Between 1987 and 2004, 2287 pts were entered in these studies of whom 1032 pts (45%) without FAB M3 or t(15;17) were in CR1 after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, received consolidation treatment, and were younger than 55 years of age and therefore eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). An HLA-identical sibling donor was available for 326 pts (32%), whereas 599 pts (58%) lacked such a donor, and information was not available in 107 pts. Compliance with allo-SCT was 82% (268 of 326). Cumulative incidences of relapse were, respectively, 32% versus 59% for pts with versus those without a donor (P < .001). Despite more treatmentrelated mortality (TRM) in the donor group (21% versus 4%, P < .001), disease-free survival (DFS) appeared significantly better in the donor group (48% ± 3% versus 37% ± 2% in the no-donor group, P < .001). Following risk-group analysis, DFS was significantly better for pts with a donor and an intermediate- (P = .01) or poor-risk profile (P = .003) and also better in pts younger than 40 years of age (P < .001). We evaluated our results and those of the previous MRC, BGMT, and EORTC studies in a meta-analysis, which revealed a significant benefit of 12% in overall survival (OS) by donor availability for all patients with AML in CR1 without a favorable cytogenetic profile.