MDM2 SNP309 accelerates familial breast carcinogenesis independently of estrogen signaling
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309T>G) in the intronic promoter of MDM2 was recently found to accelerate carcinogenesis in early-onset cancer cases. This cancer acceleration presumably was due to increased SP1 binding, resulting in enhanced MDM2 transcriptional activation by estrogens. We evaluated MDM2 SNP309 in 343 familial breast cancer cases with known mutation status for CHEK2 1100delC, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer acceleration was indeed observed in early-onset familial breast cancer cases (diagnosed ≤ 51 years), with 16% of cases carrying the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype as compared to 4% of late-onset cases (P = 0.029). The cancer acceleration was even more pronounced in the non-mutant familial breast cancer cases, with 17% of early-onset cases carrying MDM2 SNP309 GG as compared to 2% of late-onset cases (n = 214; P = 0.015). There was no evidence for an influence of estrogen signaling in the cancer acceleration by MDM2 SNP309, as there were no differences in the prevalence of MDM2 SNP309 GG among CHEK2 1100delC and BRCA2 mutant cases (with 90% ER-positive cancers) or BRCA1 mutant cases (10% ER-positive cancers). Nor did we observe differences in MDM2 SNP309 frequencies among 75 familial breast cancer cases of our cohort with known ER status. Overall, our data suggest that MDM2 SNP309 accelerates familial breast carcinogenesis, but that this acceleration is not influenced by estrogen signaling.