Immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated human metapneumovirus induces hypersensitivity to hMPV infection
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is an important cause of acute respiratory tract disease. In the 1960s, vaccination with formalin-inactivated paramyxovirus preparations - respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) - resulted in predisposition for enhanced disease upon natural infection. We have produced a formalin-inactivated hMPV preparation (FI-hMPV), which was used to immunize young cynomolgus macaques. Six days after challenge FI-hMPV-primed monkeys had developed eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchiolitis, indicative of a hypersensitivity response. This study indicates that formalin-inactivated hMPV vaccines have the same propensity to predispose for immune-mediated disease as inactivated RSV and MV vaccines.